@article{bb243600,
        AUTHOR = "Bazzi, I. and Schwartz, R. and Makhoul, J.",
        TITLE = "An Omnifont Open-Vocabulary OCR System for English and Arabic",
        JOURNAL = PAMI,
        VOLUME = "21",
        YEAR = "1999",
        NUMBER = "6",
        MONTH = "June",
        PAGES = "495-504",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238434"}

@inproceedings{bb243601,
        AUTHOR = "Bazzi, I. and La Pre, C. and Makhoul, J. and Raphael, C. and Schwartz, R.",
        TITLE = "Omnifont and Unlimited-Vocabulary OCR for English and Arabic",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR97,
        YEAR = "1997",
        PAGES = "842-846",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238435"}

@inproceedings{bb243602,
        AUTHOR = "Schwartz, R. and La Pre, C. and Makhoul, J. and Raphael, C. and Zhao, Y.",
        TITLE = "Language-Independent OCR Using a Continuous Speech Recognition System",
        BOOKTITLE = ICPR96,
        YEAR = "1996",
        PAGES = "III: 99-103",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238436"}

@inproceedings{bb243603,
        AUTHOR = "La Pre, C. and Zhao, Y. and Schwartz, R. and Makhoul, J.",
        TITLE = "Multi-Font Off-Line Arabic Character Recognition Using the BBN
Byblos Speech Recognition System",
        BOOKTITLE = ICASSP96,
        YEAR = "1996",
        PAGES = "XX",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238437"}

@article{bb243604,
        AUTHOR = "Ismail, M.A. and Gad, S.",
        TITLE = "Off-line arabic signature recognition and verification",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "33",
        YEAR = "2000",
        NUMBER = "10",
        MONTH = "October",
        PAGES = "1727-1740",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238438"}

@inproceedings{bb243605,
        AUTHOR = "Omar, A.M. and Ghanem, N.M. and Ismail, M.A. and Ghanem, S.M.",
        TITLE = "Arabic-Latin Offline Signature Recognition Based on Shape Context
Descriptor",
        BOOKTITLE = CVS15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "24-33",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238439"}

@article{bb243606,
        AUTHOR = "Cheung, A. and Bennamoun, M. and Bergmann, N.W.",
        TITLE = "An Arabic optical character recognition system using recognition-based
segmentation",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "34",
        YEAR = "2001",
        NUMBER = "2",
        MONTH = "February",
        PAGES = "215-233",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238440"}

@article{bb243607,
        AUTHOR = "Kharma, N.N. and Ward, R.K.",
        TITLE = "A novel invariant mapping applied to hand-written Arabic character
recognition",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "34",
        YEAR = "2001",
        NUMBER = "11",
        MONTH = "November",
        PAGES = "2115-2120",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238441"}

@article{bb243608,
        AUTHOR = "Al Ohali, Y. and Cheriet, M. and Suen, C.",
        TITLE = "Databases for recognition of handwritten Arabic cheques",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "36",
        YEAR = "2003",
        NUMBER = "1",
        MONTH = "January",
        PAGES = "111-121",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238442"}

@article{bb243609,
        AUTHOR = "Khorsheed, M.S.",
        TITLE = "Recognising handwritten Arabic manuscripts using a single hidden Markov
model",
        JOURNAL = PRL,
        VOLUME = "24",
        YEAR = "2003",
        NUMBER = "14",
        MONTH = "October",
        PAGES = "2235-2242",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238443"}

@article{bb243610,
        AUTHOR = "Khorsheed, M.S.",
        TITLE = "Offline recognition of omnifont Arabic text using the HMM ToolKit (HTK)",
        JOURNAL = PRL,
        VOLUME = "28",
        YEAR = "2007",
        NUMBER = "12",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "1563-1571",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238444"}

@inproceedings{bb243611,
        AUTHOR = "Khorsheed, M.S.",
        TITLE = "Mono-font Cursive Arabic Text Recognition Using Speech Recognition
System",
        BOOKTITLE = SSPR06,
        YEAR = "2006",
        PAGES = "755-763",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238445"}

@inproceedings{bb243612,
        AUTHOR = "Khorsheed, M.S. and Al Omari, H.",
        TITLE = "A Markovian Engine for Text Recognition:
Cursive Arabic Text, Statistical Features and Interconnected HMMs",
        BOOKTITLE = ICIAR12,
        YEAR = "2012",
        PAGES = "I: 375-381",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238446"}

@inproceedings{bb243613,
        AUTHOR = "Khorsheed, M.S. and Clocksin, W.F.",
        TITLE = "Multi-font Arabic Word Recognition Using Spectral Features",
        BOOKTITLE = ICPR00,
        YEAR = "2000",
        PAGES = "Vol IV: 543-546",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238447"}

@inproceedings{bb243614,
        AUTHOR = "Khorsheed, M.S. and Clocksin, W.F.",
        TITLE = "Structural Features of Cursive Arabic Script",
        BOOKTITLE = BMVC99,
        YEAR = "1999",
        PAGES = "Posters/Exhibition/Demos",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238448"}

@article{bb243615,
        AUTHOR = "Ben Amara, N.E. and Bouslama, F.",
        TITLE = "Classification of Arabic script using multiple sources of information:
State of the art and perspectives",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "5",
        YEAR = "2003",
        NUMBER = "4",
        MONTH = "July",
        PAGES = "195-212",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238449"}

@inproceedings{bb243616,
        AUTHOR = "Ben Amara, N.E. and Belad, A. and Ellouze, N.",
        TITLE = "Utilisation des modeles markoviens en reconnaissance de l'ecriture arabe:
Etat de l'art",
        BOOKTITLE = "CIFED2000",
        YEAR = "2000",
        PAGES = "181-191",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238450"}

@article{bb243617,
        AUTHOR = "Al Alawi, R.",
        TITLE = "FPGA Implementation of Pyramidal Weightless Neural Networks Learning System",
        JOURNAL = IJNS,
        VOLUME = "13",
        YEAR = "2003",
        NUMBER = "4",
        PAGES = "225-237",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238451"}

@inproceedings{bb243618,
        AUTHOR = "Al Alawi, R.",
        TITLE = "A Neural Network Recognition System for Isolated Handwritten
Arabic Characters",
        BOOKTITLE = "ICANN/ICONIP03",
        YEAR = "2003",
        PAGES = "262-265",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238452"}

@article{bb243619,
        AUTHOR = "Zheng, L.Y. and Hassin, A.H. and Tang, X.L.",
        TITLE = "A new algorithm for machine printed Arabic character segmentation",
        JOURNAL = PRL,
        VOLUME = "25",
        YEAR = "2004",
        NUMBER = "15",
        MONTH = "November",
        PAGES = "1723-1729",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238453"}

@article{bb243620,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "A new representation of shape and its use for high performance in
online Arabic character recognition by an associative memory",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "7",
        YEAR = "2005",
        NUMBER = "4",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "201-210",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238454"}

@inproceedings{bb243621,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "A new representation of character shape and its use in on-line
character recognition by a self organizing map",
        BOOKTITLE = ICIP04,
        YEAR = "2004",
        PAGES = "III: 2123-2126",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238455"}

@inproceedings{bb243622,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A.",
        TITLE = "Pattern classification by a Gibbsian Kohonen neural network with an
application to Arabic character recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = IPTA08,
        YEAR = "2008",
        PAGES = "1-5",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238456"}

@inproceedings{bb243623,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Cheriet, M. and Mitiche, A.",
        TITLE = "Combination of pruned Kohonen maps for on-line Arabic characters
recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR03,
        YEAR = "2003",
        PAGES = "900-904",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238457"}

@inproceedings{bb243624,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "On-line recognition of handwritten Arabic characters using a Kohonen
neural network",
        BOOKTITLE = FHR02,
        YEAR = "2002",
        PAGES = "490-495",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238458"}

@inproceedings{bb243625,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Reconnaissance en-Ligne de Caractères Arabes Manuscrits par un Réseau
de Kohonen",
        BOOKTITLE = VI02,
        YEAR = "2002",
        PAGES = "186",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238459"}

@article{bb243626,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Bayes Classification of Online Arabic Characters by Gibbs Modeling of
Class Conditional Densities",
        JOURNAL = PAMI,
        VOLUME = "30",
        YEAR = "2008",
        NUMBER = "7",
        MONTH = "July",
        PAGES = "1121-1131",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238460"}

@inproceedings{bb243627,
        AUTHOR = "Mezghani, N. and Mitiche, A.",
        TITLE = "A Gibbsian Kohonen Network for Online Arabic Character Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ISVC08,
        YEAR = "2008",
        PAGES = "II: 493-500",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238461"}

@article{bb243628,
        AUTHOR = "Lorigo, L.M. and Govindaraju, V.",
        TITLE = "Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition: A Survey",
        JOURNAL = PAMI,
        VOLUME = "28",
        YEAR = "2006",
        NUMBER = "5",
        MONTH = "May",
        PAGES = "712-724",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238462"}

@inproceedings{bb243629,
        AUTHOR = "Lorigo, L.M. and Govindaraju, V.",
        TITLE = "Segmentation and pre-recognition of Arabic handwriting",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR05,
        YEAR = "2005",
        PAGES = "II: 605-609",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238463"}

@article{bb243630,
        AUTHOR = "Chang, Y. and Chen, D.T. and Zhang, Y. and Yang, J.",
        TITLE = "An image-based automatic Arabic translation system",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "42",
        YEAR = "2009",
        NUMBER = "9",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "2127-2134",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238465"}

@article{bb243631,
        AUTHOR = "Sternby, J. and Morwing, J. and Andersson, J. and Friberg, C.",
        TITLE = "On-line Arabic handwriting recognition with templates",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "42",
        YEAR = "2009",
        NUMBER = "12",
        MONTH = "December",
        PAGES = "3278-3286",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238466"}

@article{bb243632,
        AUTHOR = "Moussa, S.B. and Zahour, A. and Benabdelhafid, A. and Alimi, A.M.",
        TITLE = "New features using fractal multi-dimensions for generalized Arabic font
recognition",
        JOURNAL = PRL,
        VOLUME = "31",
        YEAR = "2010",
        NUMBER = "5",
        MONTH = "April",
        PAGES = "361-371",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238467"}

@article{bb243633,
        AUTHOR = "Al Hamad, H.A. and Zitar, R.A.",
        TITLE = "Development of an efficient neural-based segmentation technique for
Arabic handwriting recognition",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "43",
        YEAR = "2010",
        NUMBER = "8",
        MONTH = "August",
        PAGES = "2773-2798",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238468"}

@article{bb243634,
        AUTHOR = "Selamat, A. and Ng, C.C.",
        TITLE = "Arabic script web page language identifications using decision tree
neural networks",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "44",
        YEAR = "2011",
        NUMBER = "1",
        MONTH = "January",
        PAGES = "133-144",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238469"}

@article{bb243635,
        AUTHOR = "Abdel Raouf, A. and Higgins, C.A. and Pridmore, T. and Khalil, M.",
        TITLE = "Building a multi-modal Arabic corpus (MMAC)",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "13",
        YEAR = "2010",
        NUMBER = "4",
        MONTH = "December",
        PAGES = "285-302",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238470"}

@inproceedings{bb243636,
        AUTHOR = "Abdel Raouf, A. and Higgins, C.A. and Khalil, M.",
        TITLE = "A Database for Arabic Printed Character Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICIAR08,
        YEAR = "2008",
        PAGES = "xx-yy",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238471"}

@article{bb243637,
        AUTHOR = "El Abed, H. and Kherallah, M. and Margner, V. and Alimi, A.M.",
        TITLE = "On-line Arabic handwriting recognition competition: ADAB database and
participating systems",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "14",
        YEAR = "2011",
        NUMBER = "1",
        MONTH = "March",
        PAGES = "15-23",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238472"}

@inproceedings{bb243638,
        AUTHOR = "El Abed, H. and Margner, V. and Kherallah, M. and Alimi, A.M.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR 2009 Online Arabic Handwriting Recognition Competition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR09,
        YEAR = "2009",
        PAGES = "1388-1392",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238473"}

@inproceedings{bb243639,
        AUTHOR = "Slimane, F. and Kanoun, S. and El Abed, H. and Alimi, A.M. and Ingold, R. and Hennebert, J.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR2013 Competition on Multi-font and Multi-size Digitally
Represented Arabic Text",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR13,
        YEAR = "2013",
        PAGES = "1433-1437",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238474"}

@inproceedings{bb243640,
        AUTHOR = "Slimane, F. and Kanoun, S. and El Abed, H. and Alimi, A.M. and Ingold, R. and Hennebert, J.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR 2011: Arabic Recognition Competition: Multi-font Multi-size
Digitally Represented Text",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR11,
        YEAR = "2011",
        PAGES = "1449-1453",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238475"}

@inproceedings{bb243641,
        AUTHOR = "Kherallah, M. and Tagougui, N. and Alimi, A.M. and Abed, H.E. and Margner, V.",
        TITLE = "Online Arabic Handwriting Recognition Competition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR11,
        YEAR = "2011",
        PAGES = "1454-1458",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238476"}

@article{bb243642,
        AUTHOR = "El Abed, H. and Margner, V.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR 2009 Arabic Handwriting Recognition Competition",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "14",
        YEAR = "2011",
        NUMBER = "1",
        MONTH = "March",
        PAGES = "3-13",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238477"}

@inproceedings{bb243643,
        AUTHOR = "Margner, V. and El Abed, H.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR 2009 Arabic Handwriting Recognition Competition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR09,
        YEAR = "2009",
        PAGES = "1383-1387",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238477"}

@inproceedings{bb243644,
        AUTHOR = "Margner, V. and El Abed, H.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR 2011: Arabic Handwriting Recognition Competition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR11,
        YEAR = "2011",
        PAGES = "1444-1448",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238478"}

@inproceedings{bb243645,
        AUTHOR = "Margner, V. and Pechwitz, M. and El Abed, H.",
        TITLE = "ICDAR 2005 Arabic handwriting recognition competition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR05,
        YEAR = "2005",
        PAGES = "I: 70-74",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238479"}

@article{bb243646,
        AUTHOR = "Tagougui, N. and Kherallah, M. and Alimi, A.M.",
        TITLE = "Online Arabic handwriting recognition: a survey",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "16",
        YEAR = "2013",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "209-226",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238480"}

@article{bb243647,
        AUTHOR = "Al Khateeb, J.H. and Ren, J.C. and Jiang, J.M. and Al Muhtaseb, H.",
        TITLE = "Offline handwritten Arabic cursive text recognition using Hidden Markov
Models and re-ranking",
        JOURNAL = PRL,
        VOLUME = "32",
        YEAR = "2011",
        NUMBER = "8",
        MONTH = "June",
        PAGES = "1081-1088",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238481"}

@article{bb243648,
        AUTHOR = "Dreuw, P. and Heigold, G. and Ney, H.",
        TITLE = "Confidence- and margin-based MMI/MPE discriminative training for
off-line handwriting recognition",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "14",
        YEAR = "2011",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "273-288",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238482"}

@inproceedings{bb243649,
        AUTHOR = "Dreuw, P. and Heigold, G. and Ney, H.",
        TITLE = "Confidence-Based Discriminative Training for Model Adaptation in
Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR09,
        YEAR = "2009",
        PAGES = "596-600",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238483"}

@inproceedings{bb243650,
        AUTHOR = "Dreuw, P. and Rybach, D. and Gollan, C. and Ney, H.",
        TITLE = "Writer Adaptive Training and Writing Variant Model Refinement for
Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR09,
        YEAR = "2009",
        PAGES = "21-25",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238484"}

@article{bb243651,
        AUTHOR = "Chherawala, Y. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "W-TSV: Weighted topological signature vector for lexicon reduction in
handwritten Arabic documents",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "45",
        YEAR = "2012",
        NUMBER = "9",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "3277-3287",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238485"}

@inproceedings{bb243652,
        AUTHOR = "Miled, H. and Olivier, C. and Cheriet, M. and Lecourtier, Y.",
        TITLE = "Coupling Observation/Letter for a Markovian Modelisation Applied to the
Recognition of Arabic Handwriting",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR97,
        YEAR = "1997",
        PAGES = "580-583",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238486"}

@book{bb243653,
        AUTHOR = "Margner, V. and El Abed, H.",
        TITLE = "Guide to OCR for Arabic Scripts",
        PUBLISHER = "Springer",
        YEAR = "2012",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238487"}

@article{bb243654,
        AUTHOR = "Parvez, M.T. and Mahmoud, S.A.",
        TITLE = "Arabic handwriting recognition using structural and syntactic pattern
attributes",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "46",
        YEAR = "2013",
        NUMBER = "1",
        MONTH = "January",
        PAGES = "141-154",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238488"}

@article{bb243655,
        AUTHOR = "Parvez, M.T. and Mahmoud, S.A.",
        TITLE = "Offline arabic handwritten text recognition: A Survey",
        JOURNAL = Surveys,
        VOLUME = "45",
        YEAR = "2013",
        NUMBER = "2",
        MONTH = "February",
        PAGES = "Article No 23",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238489"}

@article{bb243656,
        AUTHOR = "Alginahi, Y.M.",
        TITLE = "A survey on Arabic character segmentation",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "16",
        YEAR = "2013",
        NUMBER = "2",
        MONTH = "June",
        PAGES = "105-126",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238490"}

@article{bb243657,
        AUTHOR = "Saabni, R.M. and El Sana, J.A.",
        TITLE = "Comprehensive synthetic Arabic database for on/off-line script
recognition research",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "16",
        YEAR = "2013",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "285-294",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238491"}

@article{bb243658,
        AUTHOR = "Elzobi, M. and Al Hamadi, A. and Al Aghbari, Z. and Dings, L.",
        TITLE = "IESK-ArDB: a database for handwritten Arabic and an optimized
topological segmentation approach",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "16",
        YEAR = "2013",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "295-308",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238492"}

@inproceedings{bb243659,
        AUTHOR = "Elzobi, M. and Al Hamadi, A. and Dings, L. and El Etriby, S.",
        TITLE = "CRFs and HCRFs Based Recognition for Off-Line Arabic Handwriting",
        BOOKTITLE = ISVC15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "II: 337-346",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238493"}

@article{bb243660,
        AUTHOR = "Lutf, M. and You, X. and Cheung, Y.M. and Chen, C.L.P.",
        TITLE = "Arabic font recognition based on diacritics features",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "47",
        YEAR = "2014",
        NUMBER = "2",
        PAGES = "672-684",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238494"}

@article{bb243661,
        AUTHOR = "Mahmoud, S.A. and Ahmad, I. and Al Khatib, W.G. and Alshayeb, M. and Parvez, M.T. and Margner, V. and Fink, G.A.",
        TITLE = "KHATT: An open Arabic offline handwritten text database",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "47",
        YEAR = "2014",
        NUMBER = "3",
        PAGES = "1096-1112",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238495"}

@inproceedings{bb243662,
        AUTHOR = "Mahmoud, S.A. and Ahmad, I. and Alshayeb, M. and Al Khatib, W.G. and Parvez, M.T. and Fink, G.A. and Margner, V. and El Abed, H.",
        TITLE = "KHATT: Arabic Offline Handwritten Text Database",
        BOOKTITLE = FHR12,
        YEAR = "2012",
        PAGES = "449-454",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238496"}

@inproceedings{bb243663,
        AUTHOR = "Mahmoud, S.A. and Ahmad, I. and Alshayeb, M. and Al Khatib, W.G.",
        TITLE = "A Database for Offline Arabic Handwritten Text Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICIAR11,
        YEAR = "2011",
        PAGES = "II: 397-406",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238497"}

@inproceedings{bb243664,
        AUTHOR = "Ahmad, I. and Mahmoud, S.A.",
        TITLE = "Arabic Bank Check Analysis and Zone Extraction",
        BOOKTITLE = ICIAR12,
        YEAR = "2012",
        PAGES = "I: 141-148",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238498"}

@article{bb243665,
        AUTHOR = "Luqman, H. and Mahmoud, S.A. and Awaida, S.",
        TITLE = "KAFD Arabic font database",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "47",
        YEAR = "2014",
        NUMBER = "6",
        PAGES = "2231-2240",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238499"}

@article{bb243666,
        AUTHOR = "Chherawala, Y. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Arabic word descriptor for handwritten word indexing and lexicon
reduction",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "47",
        YEAR = "2014",
        NUMBER = "10",
        PAGES = "3477-3486",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238500"}

@inproceedings{bb243667,
        AUTHOR = "Chherawala, Y. and Wisnovsky, R. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Sparse descriptor for lexicon reduction in handwritten Arabic documents",
        BOOKTITLE = ICPR12,
        YEAR = "2012",
        PAGES = "3729-3732",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238501"}

@article{bb243668,
        AUTHOR = "Elarian, Y. and Ahmad, I. and Awaida, S. and Al Khatib, W.G. and Zidouri, A.",
        TITLE = "An Arabic handwriting synthesis system",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "48",
        YEAR = "2015",
        NUMBER = "3",
        PAGES = "849-861",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238502"}

@article{bb243669,
        AUTHOR = "Abdi, M.N. and Khemakhem, M.",
        TITLE = "A model-based approach to offline text-independent Arabic writer
identification and verification",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "48",
        YEAR = "2015",
        NUMBER = "5",
        PAGES = "1890-1903",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238503"}

@article{bb243670,
        AUTHOR = "Abandah, G.A. and Graves, A. and Al Shagoor, B. and Arabiyat, A. and Jamour, F. and Al Taee, M.",
        TITLE = "Automatic diacritization of Arabic text using recurrent neural networks",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "18",
        YEAR = "2015",
        NUMBER = "2",
        MONTH = "June",
        PAGES = "183-197",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238504"}

@article{bb243671,
        AUTHOR = "Mousa, M.A.A. and Sayed, M.S. and Abdalla, M.I.",
        TITLE = "An efficient algorithm for Arabic optical font recognition using
scale-invariant detector",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "18",
        YEAR = "2015",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "263-270",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238505"}

@article{bb243672,
        AUTHOR = "Fouladi, K. and Araabi, B.N.",
        TITLE = "Toward automatic development of handwritten personal Farsi/Arabic
OpenType ® fonts",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "18",
        YEAR = "2015",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "249-262",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238506"}

@article{bb243673,
        AUTHOR = "Chergui, L. and Kef, M.",
        TITLE = "SIFT descriptors for Arabic handwriting recognition",
        JOURNAL = IJCVR,
        VOLUME = "5",
        YEAR = "2015",
        NUMBER = "4",
        PAGES = "441-461",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238507"}

@inproceedings{bb243674,
        AUTHOR = "Chergui, L. and Kef, M.",
        TITLE = "A Serial Combination of Neural Network for Arabic OCR",
        BOOKTITLE = ICISP14,
        YEAR = "2014",
        PAGES = "297-303",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238508"}

@article{bb243675,
        AUTHOR = "Ahmad, I. and Mahmoud, S.A. and Fink, G.A.",
        TITLE = "Open-vocabulary recognition of machine-printed Arabic text using
hidden Markov models",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "51",
        YEAR = "2016",
        NUMBER = "1",
        PAGES = "97-111",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238509"}

@article{bb243676,
        AUTHOR = "Chherawala, Y. and Roy, P.P. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Feature Set Evaluation for Offline Handwriting Recognition Systems:
Application to the Recurrent Neural Network Model",
        JOURNAL = Cyber,
        VOLUME = "46",
        YEAR = "2016",
        NUMBER = "12",
        MONTH = "December",
        PAGES = "2825-2836",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238510"}

@inproceedings{bb243677,
        AUTHOR = "Chherawala, Y. and Roy, P.P. and Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Feature Design for Offline Arabic Handwriting Recognition:
Handcrafted vs Automated?",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR13,
        YEAR = "2013",
        PAGES = "290-294",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238511"}

@inproceedings{bb243678,
        AUTHOR = "Menasri, F. and Vincent, N. and Cheriet, M. and Augustin, E.",
        TITLE = "Shape-Based Alphabet for Off-line Arabic Handwriting Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR07,
        YEAR = "2007",
        PAGES = "969-973",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238512"}

@inproceedings{bb243679,
        AUTHOR = "Cheriet, M.",
        TITLE = "Visual Recognition of Arabic Handwriting: Challenges and New Directions",
        BOOKTITLE = SACH06,
        YEAR = "2006",
        PAGES = "xx-yy",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238513"}

@article{bb243680,
        AUTHOR = "Yousfi, S. and Berrani, S.A. and Garcia, C.",
        TITLE = "Contribution of recurrent connectionist language models in improving
LSTM-based Arabic text recognition in videos",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "64",
        YEAR = "2017",
        NUMBER = "1",
        PAGES = "245-254",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238514"}

@inproceedings{bb243681,
        AUTHOR = "Yousfi, S. and Berrani, S.A. and Garcia, C.",
        TITLE = "Deep learning and recurrent connectionist-based approaches for Arabic
text recognition in videos",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "1026-1030",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238515"}

@article{bb243682,
        AUTHOR = "Lamghari, N. and Raghay, S.",
        TITLE = "DBAHCL: database for Arabic handwritten characters and ligatures",
        JOURNAL = MultInfoRetr,
        VOLUME = "6",
        YEAR = "2017",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "263-269",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238516"}

@article{bb243683,
        AUTHOR = "Sepahvand, M. and Abdali Mohammadi, F. and Mardukhi, F.",
        TITLE = "Evolutionary Metric-Learning-Based Recognition Algorithm for Online
Isolated Persian/Arabic Characters, Reconstructed Using Inertial Pen
Signals",
        JOURNAL = Cyber,
        VOLUME = "47",
        YEAR = "2017",
        NUMBER = "9",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "2872-2884",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238517"}

@article{bb243684,
        AUTHOR = "Al Helali, B.M. and Mahmoud, S.A.",
        TITLE = "Arabic Online Handwriting Recognition (AOHR): A Survey",
        JOURNAL = Surveys,
        VOLUME = "50",
        YEAR = "2017",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "October",
        PAGES = "Article No 33",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238518"}

@article{bb243685,
        AUTHOR = "Elanwar, R. and Qin, W. and Betke, M.",
        TITLE = "Making scanned Arabic documents machine accessible using an ensemble of
SVM classifiers",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "21",
        YEAR = "2018",
        NUMBER = "1-2",
        MONTH = "June",
        PAGES = "59-75",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238519"}

@article{bb243686,
        AUTHOR = "Doush, I.A. and Alkhateeb, F. and Gharaibeh, A.H.",
        TITLE = "A novel Arabic OCR post-processing using rule-based and word context
techniques",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "21",
        YEAR = "2018",
        NUMBER = "1-2",
        MONTH = "June",
        PAGES = "77-89",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238520"}

@article{bb243687,
        AUTHOR = "Zayene, O. and Touj, S.M. and Hennebert, J. and Ingold, R. and Ben Amara, N.E.",
        TITLE = "Multi-dimensional long short-term memory networks for artificial Arabic
text recognition in news video",
        JOURNAL = IET-CV,
        VOLUME = "12",
        YEAR = "2018",
        NUMBER = "5",
        MONTH = "August",
        PAGES = "710-719",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238521"}

@inproceedings{bb243688,
        AUTHOR = "Zayene, O. and Hennebert, J. and Touj, S.M. and Ingold, R. and Ben Amara, N.E.",
        TITLE = "A dataset for Arabic text detection, tracking and recognition in news
videos- AcTiV",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "996-1000",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238522"}

@inproceedings{bb243689,
        AUTHOR = "Zayene, O. and Touj, S.M. and Hennebert, J. and Ingold, R. and Ben Amara, N.E.",
        TITLE = "Semi-automatic news video annotation framework for Arabic text",
        BOOKTITLE = IPTA14,
        YEAR = "2014",
        PAGES = "1-6",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238523"}

@article{bb243690,
        AUTHOR = "Hifny, Y.",
        TITLE = "Hybrid LSTM/MaxEnt Networks for Arabic Syntactic Diacritics
Restoration",
        JOURNAL = SPLetters,
        VOLUME = "25",
        YEAR = "2018",
        NUMBER = "10",
        MONTH = "October",
        PAGES = "1515-1519",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238524"}

@article{bb243691,
        AUTHOR = "Bougamouza, F. and Hazmoune, S. and Benmohammed, M.",
        TITLE = "Normalisation of handwriting speed for online Arabic characters
recognition",
        JOURNAL = IJCVR,
        VOLUME = "8",
        YEAR = "2018",
        NUMBER = "6",
        PAGES = "591-605",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238525"}

@article{bb243692,
        AUTHOR = "Adam, K. and Baig, A. and Al Maadeed, S. and Bouridane, A. and El Menshawy, S.",
        TITLE = "KERTAS: dataset for automatic dating of ancient Arabic manuscripts",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "21",
        YEAR = "2018",
        NUMBER = "4",
        MONTH = "December",
        PAGES = "283-290",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238526"}

@article{bb243693,
        AUTHOR = "Jemni, S.K. and Kessentini, Y. and Kanoun, S.",
        TITLE = "Out of vocabulary word detection and recovery in Arabic handwritten
text recognition",
        JOURNAL = PR,
        VOLUME = "93",
        YEAR = "2019",
        PAGES = "507-520",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238527"}

@article{bb243694,
        AUTHOR = "Ahmad, I. and Fink, G.A.",
        TITLE = "Handwritten Arabic text recognition using multi-stage sub-core-shape
HMMs",
        JOURNAL = IJDAR,
        VOLUME = "22",
        YEAR = "2019",
        NUMBER = "3",
        MONTH = "September",
        PAGES = "329-349",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238528"}

@inproceedings{bb243695,
        AUTHOR = "Ahmad, I. and Fink, G.A.",
        TITLE = "Multi-stage HMM based Arabic text recognition with rescoring",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "751-755",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238529"}

@inproceedings{bb243696,
        AUTHOR = "Ahmad, I. and Fink, G.A.",
        TITLE = "Training an Arabic handwriting recognizer without a handwritten
training data set",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "476-480",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238530"}

@inproceedings{bb243697,
        AUTHOR = "Ahmad, I. and Rothacker, L. and Fink, G.A. and Mahmoud, S.A.",
        TITLE = "Novel Sub-character HMM Models for Arabic Text Recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR13,
        YEAR = "2013",
        PAGES = "658-662",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238531"}

@inproceedings{bb243698,
        AUTHOR = "Elarian, Y. and Ahmad, I. and Awaida, S. and Al Khatib, W. and Zidouri, A.",
        TITLE = "Arabic ligatures: Analysis and application in text recognition",
        BOOKTITLE = ICDAR15,
        YEAR = "2015",
        PAGES = "896-900",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238532"}

@article{bb243699,
        AUTHOR = "Hifny, Y.",
        TITLE = "Open Vocabulary Arabic Diacritics Restoration",
        JOURNAL = SPLetters,
        VOLUME = "26",
        YEAR = "2019",
        NUMBER = "10",
        MONTH = "October",
        PAGES = "1421-1425",
        BIBSOURCE = "http://www.visionbib.com/bibliography/char1032.html#TT238533"}

Last update:May 26, 2020 at 12:00:59